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Sujan Regmi

About Sujan Regmi

Sujan Regmi is a researcher at Samriddhi Foundation.

DISSECTING FISCAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR FEDERAL NEPAL

Part 5 of the Constitution of Nepal provides the structure of the state and the distribution of power among three orders of government. Each order of the government then can make laws, their respective annual budgets, formulate and implement their own policies and plans. This power is a core fundamental of the Federal principle. Continue reading

Sujan Regmi

About Sujan Regmi

Sujan Regmi is a researcher at Samriddhi Foundation.

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नेपालमा राजस्व अधिकारको व्यवस्था

नेपालको संविधानले राज्यको संरचनालाई संघ, प्रदेश र स्थानीय समेत गरी तीन तहमा विभाजन गरेको छ । प्रदेश र स्थानीय तहलाई उप-राज्यस्थरको संवैधानिक अधिकार प्रदान गरिएको छ जसमा राजनैतिक, आर्थिक र राजस्व सम्बन्धि अधिकारहरु पर्दछन् । संविधानको भाग ५ को धारा ५७, ५८, ५९ र ६० मा राज्यशक्तिको बाँडफाँट अन्तर्गत संघ, प्रदेश र स्थानीय तहको आर्थिक अधिकार र त्यसको प्रयोग कसरी गर्ने भन्ने बारेमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ । Continue reading

Sujan Regmi

About Sujan Regmi

Sujan Regmi is a researcher at Samriddhi Foundation.

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CONSTITUTIONAL TIMELINE OF NEPAL

In modern political science, a constitution lies at the heart of a nation, giving it energy, opportunity and most importantly, life. Nepal has come a long way from an era of absolute monarchy to a Federal Democratic Republic nation. Our seven constitutions teach us important lessons and as we move towards a new system, these can act as our guiding force. Continue reading

Sujan Regmi

About Sujan Regmi

Sujan Regmi is a researcher at Samriddhi Foundation.

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दोश्रो चरणको आर्थिक सुधार तर्फ

सन् २०१५मा  ‘नेपालको संविधान’को घोषणा भए संगै, नेपालमा एकात्मक राज्यव्यवस्थाको अन्त्य भई संघीयता कर्यान्वयन भएको छ । यस २ वर्ष ४ महिना नेपालमा पर्याप्त प्रगतिहरु भएका छन्  र यी सबै मध्ये संविधानको मर्म अनुरुप तीनै तहको निर्वाचन र नयाँ स्थिर सरकारको गठन सबै भन्दा महत्तपूर्ण  हो । मताधिकार पाएका लगभग  ७०% जनताले  निर्वाचनमा भाग लिई स्थानीय, प्रादेशीक र संघीय तहमा आफ्नो जनप्रतिनिधि चुनेका छन् । बितेको एक दशक हेर्ने हो भने सबै भन्दा धेरै राजनैतिक, आर्थिक उतार चडावहरु भए  बावजुत एक वर्ष भित्र तीनै तहको सफल निर्वाचन सम्पन्न  भई  हामी अब राजनैतिक स्थिरता र आर्थिक समृद्धिको बाटो तिर अघि बढ्ने संकेत गरेको भन्ने बुझ्न सक्छौं ।

नेपालको विकास नहुनुमा प्राय हामी राजनीतक अस्थिरता र एकात्मक राज्यव्यवस्था प्रणालीलाई नै दोष  दिने गर्दछौं । पश्चिमी मुलुकहरु हेर्ने हो भने आर्थिक विकासका  लागी राजनीतिक स्थिरता संगै त्यहाँका नीति नियमहरुले उद्यमीहरुलाई के-कस्ता व्यवस्था गरेका छन्  भन्ने कुरा विशेष महत्व राख्दछन्  । केन्द्रिकृत राज्य व्यवस्थाले देशका विभिन्न क्षेत्रमा बसोबास गर्ने मानिसलाई राज्यको सेवा सुविधाको  पहुँच हुन सकेन भनेर नेपालमा नयाँ किसिमको लोकतान्त्रिक शासनविधि सुरु भएको हो । साथै विभिन्न प्रशासनिक कामका लागी राजधानीनै आउनु पर्ने बाध्यकारी व्यवस्थाले जनतालाई थप पिडा थपेको थियो । अत: संघीयताले सम्पूर्ण जनतालाई छिटो, छरितो र चुस्त सेवा प्रदान  गर्न सक्ने भएकाले नेपालमा यो व्यवस्थालाई संविधानले आत्मसाथ गरेको छ ।

नया सरकार बने संगै संघीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्रात्मक शासन व्यवस्था सहितको नेपाल पछिल्लो ७ दशकमा  विभिन्न आरोहका साथ यहाँ सम्म आइपुगिसकेको छ । अगाडी हेर्दा झन् ठुला चुनौतीका पहाडहरु छन् तर अब फर्केर जाने वा स्थिर रहने सवाल छैन । समय गतीशील छ । नेपालका अबका चुनौतीहरुमा संविधानको मर्म अनुरुप संघीयता  कार्यन्वयन, अधिकार सम्पन्न प्रदेश र स्थानीय सरकार, दिगो आर्थिक विकास, भौतिकसंरचनको निर्माण, प्रशासनिक सुगमता, सुशासन, भ्रष्टचार मुक्त समाज,रोजगारी सिर्जना, उद्यमशिलताको विकास आदि हुन ।

अत: आर्थिक समृद्धि र सुखी नेपालको सुनिश्चितता गर्ने काम लोकतान्त्रिक पद्धतीमा जनताद्वारा निर्वाचित जन-प्रतिनिधिहरुको हो । आम जनताका लागी घर घरमा सिंहदरबारको सुनिश्चितता गर्ने काम यिनै जनप्रतिनिधिहरुको हो । उचित नतिजा निकाल्न मनग्य मिहेनत र लगनका साथै उत्तिकै समय र परिश्रम चाहिन्छ । ज्ञान, शिप र कौशलले जस्तो सुकै समस्याको समाधान गर्ने बाटो देखाउঁछ । नेपालले सन् १९९० को दसकमै  आर्थिक उधारीकरणको सुरुवात गरेर पहिलो पुस्ताको आर्थिक सुधारिकरण गरी नेपालले  ८% भन्दा बढी आर्थिक बृद्धिको सूचांक  हाँसिल गरेको उदहारण छ । दोश्रो चरणको आर्थिक सुधारिकरण गरी कम्पनी दर्ता तथा खारेजीमा सहजता र सरलीकरण ,अन्तर विभाग समन्वय, कम्पनी बिघटनका वाध्यकारी व्यवस्था हटाउने , दामासाहीको प्रक्रिया छोटो र सजिलो गर्ने , तथा करार कर्यान्वयनलाई सजिलो र छिटो बनाउन तत्काल कार्य थालनी गर्नु पर्छ । यसका साथै विदेश व्यापारलाई चुस्त दुरुस्त बनाउन बहुआयमिक मालसामान बिल, कम भन्दा कम कागजपत्रको प्रयोग व्यवस्था, एकृकित नाका व्यवस्था, नीतिगत सामन्जस्यता, विद्युतीय तथ्यांकको प्रयोग तथा सूचना आदान प्रदान, प्रविधिको उचित प्रयोग गर्न जरुरि छ । हाल नेपालमा कर भुक्तानी गर्ने प्रक्रिया निकै झन्झटिलो  र समय लाग्ने खालको छ। अत: नेपालले छिटो भन्दा छिटो डिजिटल प्रबिधि अपनाई विद्युतीय मध्यमबाट भुक्तानीको व्यवस्था मिलाउन जरूरी छ ।

हाम्रो सरकारले के कति काम गर्यो भन्ने कुरा अहिले बनेको सरकारको कार्यकाल सकिएपछि ५ वर्षमा थाहा पक्कै हुन्छ तर कुन कुन समयमा के के गर्यो भन्ने पनि महत्वपूर्ण कुरा हो । हामी कहाँ बिगतका उदहारण हेर्ने हो भने  आर्थिक वर्षको अन्त्य तिर या चुनावका  नजिकै, विकास निर्माणका कामहरु तिब्व्र रुपमा अघि बढेको देख्न सक्छौं । सरकार र  ठेकेदारहरुको लापरबाहीका कारण राजस्वको दुरुपयोगले देशलाई झन् दरिद्र बनाएको छ । त्यसैले यस्ता क्रियाकलापले  स्रोत र साधनको उचित प्रयोग नगरी आमजनताले तिरेको करको दुरुपयोग हुदै आएको देखिन्छ । जनताले अब बन्ने जुन सुकै सरकारलाई  निग्रानीमा राखेर उचित मूल्यांकन गर्न पर्छ । सरकारले लिने निणय  आमजनताका दैनकीलाई सजिलो एवं सुलभ बनाउने र  सुशासनलाई आत्मसाथ गर्ने हुन पर्छ । सरकारले जनताका भावनालाई बुझेर नतिजा मुखी भई आफ्ना सेवा तथा कार्यक्रमले जनताको दैनिकी सहज हुने गरी गर्नु पर्दछ । निर्वाचनको जनादेशलाई सम्मान गर्दै अल्पकालीन तथा दीर्घकालिन योजनामा के कतिको प्रगति भएको छ भन्ने कुराहरु  जनप्रतिनिधिहरु निरन्तर रुपमा जवाफदेही हुनपर्दछ  । नागरिक समाज, बुद्धिजीवी वर्ग, पत्रकार तथा पत्रपत्रिकाहरुले सरकारका खराब निर्णय र कदमलाई निरन्तर खबरदारी गर्न जरूरी छ ।

 

Sujan Regmi

About Sujan Regmi

Sujan Regmi is a researcher at Samriddhi Foundation.

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Laws Passed By Transition Government Applicable in Federal Structure

In Sep 20, 2015, the constitution of Federal Republic of Nepal was adopted. It has been more than two years. Last year, the elections of all three orders of government are complete. The last remaining election for the National Assembly is schedule on February 7. Till date Government of Nepal has executed the following laws and directives to aid the process of federalizing the country.

  • National Assembly Member Election Ordinance, 2074
  • National Medical Education Ordinance, 2074
  • Rajshree Janak University Act 2074,
  • Education (Ninth-Amendment) Act, 2074
  • Disaster Risk and Management Act, 2074
  • Employee Adjustment Act, 2074
  • A law made by law enforcement agencies to determine legal punishment and to enforce such punishment
  • An Act made to arrange health insurance
  • An Act made to amend and integrate cooperative laws
  • An Act made to arrange for some amendment, integration, adjustment and dismissal of Nepal law(193 existing acts of Nepal were amended in line with the Federal Constitution of Nepal)
  • An Act made to arrange for remuneration and convenience of State Chief
  • An Act made to amend and integrate the law related to the Devani issue procedure
  • The law made for the amendment and integration related to the law of criminal offense
  • An Act made to amend and integrate Devani Law
  • An Act made to arrange for Language Commission
  • An Act made to amend and integrate the prevailing laws related to criminal offenses
  • The law governed by the local government to operate
  • An Act made to arrange for Rapti Health Science Foundation
  • An Act made to amend and integrate the law regarding the rights of persons with disability
  • National Women’s Commission Act, 2074
  • National Dalit Commission Act, 2074
  • Muslim Commission Act, 2074
  • Act, 2074 of the Honorable Judge and the Supreme Court Judge, the remedial, the convenience and other terms of service
  • Tharu Commission Act, 2074
  • Act of the High Courts and Judges of district court, remuneration, convenience and other conditions of service, 2074
  • National Inclusive Commission Act, 2074
  • Inter-government finance management act, 2074
  • An Act regarding the election of the Vice President and Vice President, 2074
  • National Natural Resources and Finance Commission Act, 2074
  • Tribal People’s Commission Act, 2074
  • Regarding the President and Vice President’s Service, 2074
  • Madheshi Commission Act, 2074
  • Local level election law (including first amendment)
  • A Political Party Related Act, 2073 (including the first amendment)
  • Number of wards of VDCs and municipalities
  • Deployment Act 2074
  • Labor Act, 2074
  • Electricity Regulation Commission, 2074
  • State Assembly Member Election Act, 2074
  • Representative Assembly Member Election Act, 2074
  • Monetary Markets Act, 2074
  • Economic Act 2074
  • Federal Contingency Fund Act
  • Contribution based social security
  • Bonus Fifth Amendments
  • Company (First Amendment) Act, 2074
  • International Wildlife Control Act of Wildlife and Vegetation, 2073
  • National Park and Wildlife Protection (5th Amendment) Act, 2073
  • A Political Party  Act, 2073
  • Bank and Financial Institution Act, 2073
  • Regarding local level elections
  • An Act made to amend and integrate the prevailing laws of election lawsuit and punishment
  • Revision and integration of voter registration law
  • Amendment and integration of the law related to the duty and right of the Election Commission
  • The law made to arrange for the remedial and convenience of the officials and members of the Federal Parliament
  • An Act made to amend the Forest Act 2049
  • The law made to arrange the national debt raising rights
  • An Act made to amend the Nepal Rastra Bank Act, 2058
  • An Act made to amend Loan and Bail Act 2025
  • Deposit and Credit Protection Fund Act-2073
  • Vehicle and Transportation Business Second Amendment Act, 2073
  • Special Economic Area Act 2073
  • Audit First Amendment Act, 2073
  • The first amendment of the banking lawsuit and punishment is 2073
  • Employee Sanction Fund, New Amendment Act, 2073
  • The Act made to amend the Supreme Court Act
  • An Act made to amend and integrate the duties and rights of the Justice Service Commission
  • An Act made to amend and integrate the law of justice administration
  • An Act made to amend and integrate the duty of the Judicial Council to the law of duty
  • Education Act Eighth Amendment

The Constitution of Nepal has provided both executive and legislative powers to all three form of government. Hence the provincial and local government has also to come up with various laws required for the effective implementation of federalism. The Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs in a research has identified  that 110 federal laws, 22 provincial laws and 6 local level government laws  has to be made for the implementation of Constitution of Nepal.  In Nepal about 315 laws and 270 regulations are in implementation with the promulgation of federal constitution. 73 out of 315 acts need no amendments, 170 acts need minor amendments and 40 acts needs different amendment bill.

Sujan Regmi

About Sujan Regmi

Sujan Regmi is a researcher at Samriddhi Foundation.

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Remittance: Where is the money going?

It is hardly news for us that Nepal is one of the largest recipients of remittance (relative to the Gross Domestic Product); inbound remittance is equivalent to 30% of Nepal’s GDP, and continues to grow by the year. Yet, not much of this money is being channeled to productive activities, and that, many argue is a worrisome event for Nepal. But why could that be happening? According to one of the recent updates published in national daily, much of this money is spent on loan repayment, daily consumption, education and health, and some bit is being saved. A closer look at these headings clearly reflects Nepal’s ground realities, and offers cues to why not much is going into productive sector.

25% on loan repayment
The primary reason behind so many young people migrating to foreign lands is a search for economic opportunities—opportunities that are not available for most of them in Nepal. This migration, however, does not come free of cost. Since most of these economic migrants come from poor families that also do not have much savings in the first place, they acquire loans in hundreds of thousands to get themselves into these foreign lands. Obviously then, the first priority for them is to repay their loans so that they can secure greater disposable transfers for their families as soon as they can.

24% on daily consumption
Around 25 percent of Nepalese are living below the poverty line. For most of these people, it is daily battle—meeting their basic needs. Therefore, when the level of income increases, a large portion of the disposable income is spent on daily consumption. People cannot be expected to make huge proportions of saving and invest it while they do not even have a decent arrangement regarding their basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. And that is what we see so many poor Nepalese people doing with growing remittances. When disposable income increases, it’s a basic human behavior to uplift living standard for better and healthy life.

10% on education and health
While a large portion of Nepal’s budget is spent on health and education sector, access of people to quality health and education services are not satisfactory to say the least. The number of free public schools is high but large numbers of students are now slowly moving to privately-run schools for quality education. This is a manifestation of the fact that parents believe that quality education is a pre-condition for their children’s secure future, and that they perceive private schools as better educators.
Similarly, public health services are not accessible to all. That is not to mean that private health services are, however, the same services that the government has committed to offer to the people for free are non-existent in a lot of places, and people have to spend a substantial chunk of their income on accessing these facilities.
Combined, these expenses reflect the inefficiency of state institutions, and poor quality of whatever little services are available to the people.

28% on savings
The above-three major headings and some others (including trade, cultural and religious activities, etc.) account for 72% of remittances, leaving behind only 28% for savings. This is the amount that could actually go to productive sectors in the form of investments. And that is where the catch is, for Nepal. If nothing else changes, most of this money will go into purchasing land and gold as these assets guarantee a certain amount of return (which substantially greater than investing in other economic sectors in Nepal). However, if the goal is to have this money channeled to productive sectors, then Nepal will have to rethink its policies such that there are respectable returns to be earned from the productive sectors as well. And this will come through building a conducive environment for doing business, meaning stable and market-friendly policies that allow people to start their businesses with ease, protect their private properties, guarantee contract enforcement, allow for easy exit from the market, and ensure rule of law.

Sujan Regmi

About Sujan Regmi

Sujan Regmi is a researcher at Samriddhi Foundation.

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